This is a great example of how technology determinism is working. There is nothing to be done about it.
These superiors, teammates and subordinates all share the constant
the connection this cycle creates. No one has ever mentioned the connection, or
made a conscious decision to adopt it. In fact the decision was made the decision was made when Perlow was later convinced
teams of Boston Consulting Group to schedule secure time off from
communication equipment, the team members spoke about their effectiveness and effectiveness.
The effectiveness of the system is increasing.25
She also suggested an email server.
designed so that messages that are made after hours of operation will be
The automatic release is automatically released the following morning (a flag with a particular design could be
This change will allow you for bypassing this limit only for the most urgent communications). This modification
may sound straightforward it sounds, but by short-circuiting cycle of responsiveness, it can be a nightmare.
the impact could be catastrophic.
The most important lesson to be learned from the work of Perlow is random and haphazard
In an unplanned and unintentional manner, you can create an completely different method of communicating
emerged. A media theory expert Douglas Rushkoff uses the term “collaborative
“pacing” to be used to describe the tendency of human groups to move towards
specific patterns of conduct without ever explicitly taking the decision to make
New behaviors new behaviors sense.26
I notice you’re responding a little quicker to
My message is received, and I decide to send the same message. Others do the same; it’s my pattern is
the responsiveness develops, and eventually becomes the default. The consultants
Perlow was not able to pick the responsiveness cycle; in a certain sense,
the email program was selected by their choice.
The Hive Mind Driver #3 The Caveman at the Computer Screen
In a study published at the end of 2018 by the journal Quaternary, Tel Aviv University
archaeologists Aviad Agam and Ran Barkai analyze the evidence available
“archaeological, ethnographic, and ethno-historical documents” to summarise
our current understanding of the early humans were, beginning in the Lower
Paleolithic hunted elephants, as well as mammoths.27
This paper has four
captivating charcoal drawings depicting the writers striking charcoal drawings that represent their best guesses of the best way to
The hunts may have been successful.
The first sketch depicts a group of seven Paleolithic hunters negotiating at
rearing elephants, each throwing spears towards organs in danger. The
Second and third shows the hunter who is trying to be amuse an elephant
stealthy, landing a crucial spear before the animal even realizes what’s happening.
happening. In one instance the hunter is attacked by laying down, stabbing upwards from
the stomach. In the second one, the hunter is hidden in the tree and then stabs downwards to reveal
elephant passes. The fourth sketch six hunters rushes to finish
With spears, an elephant who has fallen into a trap.
In order to understand our goals it is important to note the size limitations of the groups.
Engaged in all of the hunt involved in each of these hunting. Through our species’s vast
This evidence suggests that the time we hunted megafauna, we did it in one of two ways:
as individuals or in small or in small. This is likely to be the case for those who are
Foraging, hunting, and small game hunting comprised the “work” activities that
The dominant factor in our evolution. It doesn’t require an enormous leap.
The use of evolutionary psychology speculatively to reach a plausible conclusion
that Homo sapiens are well-adapted to collaboration in small groups.
To link this reflection of our rich history to our present discussion
If you’re using email, take into consideration the nature of collaborations, think about the dynamics of these. If you’re part
Small smaller group Paleolithic hunters who are sneakily nearing an elephant.
The communication will be ad-hoc and unstructured, as you modify your communication on the fly
to the current to the unfolding (imagine the dialogue that follows to the unfolding situation (imagine the following dialogue delivered
Some forgotten caveman dialect):
“Careful . . . Beware of those sticks, as they could crack and
It is a good idea to scare the elephant. . . .”
“Wait for a while, then turn around in this manner. . . .”
“Slowly now it’s ears are perking up. . . .”
Even if we abandon our long past and return to more recent preindustrial age, for the vast majority of people the vast majority
Experience working with other people would be limited to small groups, ranging from the
The farmer and his children navigate his plow and blacksmith who is closely
and his apprentice in his forge. Like the Paleolithic hunter, this was the one who had the greatest
The most natural method for small groups to collaborate is to coordinate in a loose-form way. It is
It follows that the method of collaboration is innately found in both
our genes as well as our cultural memories share the most important characteristics of
Hyperactive hive mind work. We shouldn’t be too surprised by the fact that
as the advent of low-friction messaging tools like email created
similarly unstructured communications are also can be a possibility in the modern big office
The scenario was intriguing, and we were attracted to this particular mode of interaction.
The problem, naturally is the hyperactive hive mind is deployed in
An office is different in comparison to the of an Stone Age elephant
Search for one important property The office connects more people.
Unstructured coordination is fantastic for six hunters, but can become a problem for larger groups.
Ineffectively when connecting hundreds, if not hundreds of
employees in large organizations. We are aware of this due to the
extensive research literature on the optimal size of groups for effective working
Together, we can solve professional challenges. “The problem of size has been
Since the beginning of the field of social psychology.” is the explanation Jennifer Mueller, a
Professor of management at Wharton.28
The first studies conducted in this field was the now well-known work of a
19th century French agricultural engineer Maximilien Ringelmann, a French engineer in the nineteenth century.
They proved that it is possible to commit more people to the job of
when pulling a rope when pulling a rope, the force that each rope puller exerts reduces
which will result in lower results as the group size increases. Although the physical
the task of pulling ropes not necessary for the present information sector.
Ringelmann’s work was influential, since it was the first to introduce the idea of a generalization
growing an organization’s size team won’t necessarily mean that it will be more effective in
In the present numerous management professors have built upon this
observation through studying what contributes with regard to effectiveness in the workplace
collaboration as you increase collaboration when you increase the size of your team. A 2006 article on review
Published by Wharton contains a number of such research studies published by Wharton. However, the book
There isn’t a specific size of team that is consistently deemed optimal.
Practically every result falls within an extremely narrow range of four to twelve
People exactly as we observed from the beginning of the Paleolithic
There are numerous theories for teams that are above this threshold are
less efficient. The loafing effect was first noticed by Ringelmann for instance, is
It appears that knowledge work still plays the role of knowledge tasks. (Summarized as follows:
the more people involved in an idea, the more likely it will be to go by the project in the hands of
in less effort.) Another important factor is the increasing complexity of
communication. It’s simple for six elephant hunter to coordinate their hunt
simply speaking up whenever you have something important by simply expressing their opinion when they have something important to by simply speaking up when they have something to say. If you
If this number were increased to sixty, the task could be reduced to an
an incomprehensible swarm of voices and unrecognized ideas
This is which is size usually have chains that are strict
By bringing these threads together, we can weave a compelling story
that help to explain the hyperactive hive’s that helps explain the hyperactive hive mind’s. Through the majority of
Humanity has been around for a long time. We worked as small teams, collaborating via an advertisement
Ad hoc style without any specific pattern or structure. It is the rise of big
office in the early 20th century totally affected the natural
methods of collaboration, which requires us to instead send memos that are carboncopied into typing pools or have secretaries schedule one-on one telephone calls.
As soon as email came in We found a way to bring back a primitive mode of
communication with our otherwise hostile workplaces – we could
simply talk, at the same time, sending messages as thoughts came in and then expect
Responds quickly The elephant hunt was played out via networks wires. The
The result was the hyperactive hive mind-brain-workflow, which could be understood at an
Instinctively, though on a practical basis it started to push us to
frustration because we underestimated its capacity to grow to large groups.
In other words, despite the now-common tableau of the chaotic
executives on their phones may look similar to
The personification of our contemporary times It’s almost Paleolithic in
Peter Drucker and the Tragedy of the Attention
As a kid in Austria during the early decades of the 20th century Peter
Drucker received exposure to a number of the most influential economists of the time,
Notables include Joseph Schumpeter of “creative destruction” fame,
who were guests at evening salons held by Drucker’s parents Adolph and
The intellectual energy of these salons set the foundations for
The eventual rise of Drucker as one of the most significant business leaders
Modernists and thinkers and is widely recognized as the “founder
of modern management.”30
His work included thirty-nine books, as well as
Many articles prior to the time of his passing in, at 95 years old.
Drucker’s quest for fame began to gain momentum in 1942.
when, as a thirty-three-year-old professor at Bennington College, he
The author has published his second work, The Future of Industrial Man. It asked , how can we improve our lives?
“industrial society”–one that is forming within “the completely new physical
Reality Western man has constructed his own home from the time James Watt invented
the steam engine”31–might be the best way to structure it to protect freedom of the individual
and dignity. It was published in the middle of an industrial world war the book was a source of pride
a wide readership. It was a hit with the team of management of General Motors,
who has invited Drucker to devote two years to study how the world’s most powerful
The 1946 title, which resulted from this engagement
Concept of the Corporation, was among the first books that looked at
how large corporations actually operated. It laid the basis for
the management of people as something that can be studied, and this led to Drucker’s
To our point, Drucker is more than simply a business theorist.
His influence can also help solve a pressing issue that may have caught your attention.
pay attention when you read this chapter pay attention to this chapter: Even if we believe that hyperactive
Hive mind developed largely on its own initiative, but how did we allow it to remain?
When its weaknesses became apparent?
— While working at GM in the 1940s Peter Drucker got to know the company’s legendary chief executive, Alfred P. Sloan Jr. According to Drucker, who later told his story, Sloan once said
This is how to be an effective management: “He must be absolutely
Tolerant and not paying focus on how a man is doing his work.”33
This concept reemerged in Drucker’s thought process during the 1950s and the 1960s, a time that Drucker was a prolific writer.
The term “knowledge work” was coined by him when he began grappling with the new paradigm of
economy in which brains’ output was beginning to become more important
more than the production of factories.
“The knowledgeable worker can’t be monitored closely or with a lot of detail,”
Drucker said in his book of 1967″The Executive Who Works. “He must lead
It was an innovative concept. The nation’s factories were they were centralized.
Control for workers became the norm. It was influenced by so-called “scientific
management” concepts are popularized through Frederick Winslow Taylor, who
The factory floor was once a famous scout floor using a stopwatch looking for
poor movement, the industrial management considered workers to be automatons
Implementing optimized processes that have been carefully planned by a small group of smart
Drucker claimed that this strategy was likely to fail in the modern world of
Knowledge work, where the output was not created by costly
machines that stamp out parts rather, it is by brain workers using
specialized cognitive skills. Indeed, knowledge workers typically had more
regarding their specialties, compared to those who manage their specialties better than those who managed. The most effective way to
employ these highly skilled people Drucker said the goal was to provide
They should have clear goals and let them be at it to complete their logical
perform their work as they deemed appropriate. Although it could have been effective to inform the story of
assembly line worker precisely how to put in a steering wheel. However, it was in vain to
You should try to show an advertising copywriter precisely what to do to create a brand new product
Drucker advocated this idea of the autonomy of knowledge workers all through
his lengthy career. Even in 1999, he emphasized the importance of
[Knowledge work] requires that we assume the burden of
their effectiveness on each individual information workers
themselves. Knowledge workers must manage their own lives. They
need to be autonomous.
It’s difficult to quantify the power of this notion. Except for
of routine bureaucratic procedures of some routinized bureaucratic processes, such as of filing expense reports,
complex ways to perform the myriad of challenging tasks of the modern office
The tasks performed are outside the management’s scope.
They’re instead pushed to the area in personal performance. Are you looking for
To be able to know how to accomplish your goals? Get a book on how to improve your organization
tasks (Drucker himself was the author of one of the first books on this The Effective
Executive) Use the new planner or the latter, as it is recommended in our
A culture of “crushing it” simply try to work harder. Knowledge workers don’t
Expect their company to be interested in the amount of work that falls to their
plate or how they do the job accomplished.
Our shift from knowledge-based work to industrial or, more precisely we offered
Automaton status to allow for excessive autonomy. In this case, it is necessary to give
The hyperactive hive mind when it was in place, became extremely difficult to
Eliminate, since it’s difficult to repair a broken process since it’s not the job of anyone to
ensure that the workflow works. In 1833 William, it was the British economist William
Forster Lloyd proposed a hypothetical scenario, which is now a standard illustration in
game theory can aid in understanding the dynamics. The scenario
and later came to be popularly known as The tragedy of Commons
is a thought
A town that has common grazing areas for sheep and cattle, like the one in
common typical of Great Britain in the nineteenth century. Lloyd made a point of a
intriguing tension intriguing tension. It’s in the best desire of every herder to have a good grazing spot for his
Animals as they can to be on commons but when all herders behave
In their best interests it is inevitable that they will take over the commons, making it unsustainable.
ineffective for everyone. Similar scenarios of personal interest can lead to
Collective hardship can be commonplace in a variety of contexts, ranging from
unstable ecosystems, to mining for resources, to actions that surround the shared
refrigerators. Utilizing the mathematical tools developed in the mid-twentieth century
century of John Nash (of A Beautiful Mind fame) and you can find specifically
Analyze this situation and it can be seen as an excellent example of how to play the is a game
Theorists might refer to theorists to call “inefficient Nash equilibrium.”
This economic triviality is the basis of our discussions because when
The hyperactive hive brain was a result of to the factors that were described earlier in this
chapter of communication in the modern workplace became an additional example
of Lloyd’s of Lloyd’s thought of Lloyd’s thought. After your company has fallen
to the hive mind. it’s in every individual’s desire to remain
This workflow is not a bad thing can lead to a negative end-point for the
The entire organization. It makes life more efficient in the present time when you are in the middle of an organization
You can anticipate quick responses to messages that send out to
colleagues. Equally when you reduce the amount of time you’re spending with
If you check your email within a community that relies on the hive mind you’ll lose speed
down others’ efforts, which can cause anger and discontent that
might put your job in jeopardy. If you do, it could put your job at risk. the meaning of this analogy to
ease, and in the work, we’re over-grazing our usual selection of
time and attention , because everyone wants to be the person who is letting their
cognitive sheep go hungry.
The negative side effects of a hyperactive hive mind In other words,
In other words, they are unlikely to be solved by minor changes in the individual’s behaviors. In any case,
funny attempts to influence the actions of an entire company like
by establishing better standards for the speed of responding to emails, or even trying
single-time experiments like Fridays without email are not likely to succeed. As high as 150
the years of economic theory have taught us to resolve the problems of
commons, you can’t expect significantly better behavior from herders.
it is better to change the free-for-all-grazing system with something more appropriate.
more efficient. It is the same for the hyperactive hive brain and we are not
We can tame it by modifying minor things. But we must change it to a better process.
In order to achieve this to do that, we need to ease Peter Drucker’s stigmatization of engineering
office work. Drucker was on the right track to emphasize that we can’t fully manage
the specialization of the effort of workers in the field of knowledge however, we shouldn’t extend this the specific efforts of knowledge workers.
the processes that support the work. Managers can’t discern the workflows of how a copywriter works.
how to make an outstanding ad. she might be a bit more persuasive about
the manner in which these commissions are allocated or what other obligations they are
The copywriter’s plate is not allowed or the way in which client demands can be accommodated on the copywriter’s plate, or about how client requests
This is the aim of putting in place better workflows that bypass the
One of the most detrimental effects of hyperactive hive mind are obviously a significant
The process will involve trials and errors and a lot of frustrations. However, it is a difficult
If you have the right guidelines, it’s totally possible as well as the
The competitive advantage that it could bring could be huge. The second
The first part of the book, to which we’ve reached, is devoted to providing explanations
Principles for a World Without
Attention Capital Principle Attention Capital Principle
Model Ts and Know-how Work
We start our quest to reshape the hyperactive hive brain work in the form of
It was a bit of an oddity to find Henry Ford’s first auto factories. The early years of the Ford Motor Company.
decades of the 20th century, the Ford Motor Company’s newly created Ford Motor Company
manufactured its cars in the same manner that its competitors do. “We simply
The idea of putting cars together on an area on the floor.” Ford once explained.
“Workmen delivered to the components as required in precisely the same way.
the way to build the way to build a house.”1
These cars, which were not fully assembled, were elevated
on sawhorses made of wood to avoid unnecessarily stooping when teams of
workers gathered around them as they shaped and filed the various components and
pieces to form tight fittings. The factories employing the “craft process,” as it
was affluent, and were immediately increasing the approach that Karl
Benz had been instrumental in assembling the first car that could be used in the latter part of the 1800s.2
After having worked his way up from his Model A, which seated just two people
It will cost you more if you need an awning, with models B, C, F K, N, Ford
eventually arrived in 1908 to the time that would be his masterpiece of practical
conveyance transportation: Model T. Model T. With this new model, Ford set out to create something new.
not only the characteristics of the car, but the entire process of how it is operated.
was developed. The initial step in this development was the introduction
of interchangeable components. Based on methods that have emerged
originated taken from New England armories around the beginning during The Civil War,
Ford returned profits from first versions of this well-known vehicle
develop tools for specialized work that can create car parts in sufficient quantities.
accuracy to end the long process of grinding and filing otherwise
required to get these components to work together.
According to the company’s slogan: “You
You could go around the world in the Model T and exchange crankshafts with
Any another Model T you met en way as well, and both engines could function as
flawlessly after the exchange, just as before.”4
Through the elimination of grinding, interchangeable components were created for quicker assembly
Possible it is, however Ford was left to figure out how to acquire the approximate 100.
precisely engineered parts which made up the Model T to come together to form the form of
functioning vehicle in the shortest time frame possible. In order to accomplish
To achieve this to achieve it, he tested many various ideas. In its most basic shape the craft
Methods were initially used with teams of 15 working on one car. Ford
The experiment was to have one person committed to building each vehicle, using
other workers who are bringing him the pieces. It is essential for just one worker to
The context switch can be used to switch between all of the assembly steps but it is
The delays caused by the delays, so Ford created the system in which each worker was
committed to a single job, such as bolting an auto’s bumper
They would walk across the floor of the factory from car to car doing exactly that step
each vehicle. This was slightly better, however it was incredibly difficult to
They will orchestrate the experts rotating.
It was 1913, about five years after the debut Model T. Model T,
That Ford took the next leap by playing around what If
instead of shifting workers from stationary cars instead of moving workers between stationary cars, the cars sped past
stationary workers? He began with a tentative approach, using an assembly line-type mini
developed to speed up manufacturing of the magnetos coiled-wire designed to speed up the production of the coiled-wire magnetos
provided the sparks for an ignition device for the Model T. It used to require a
one worker takes around 20 minutes to create an magneto using
He would scratch his workbench. Then Ford introduced an unassuming, waist-high
conveyor belt, and then broke the structure into five steps. It was then re-implemented
by five workers who are standing shoulder-to-shoulder, the magneto is now forming.
all in just five minutes.
The light bulb in the proverbial light source was lit. Following the magneto, came an entirely new
Assembly line that is used for axle of the vehicle the axle assembly line, which reduces construction time by two to
two and a half to 26 minutes. Then , a line of moving to the
Three-speed transmissions in the vehicle, helping reduce the time it takes to build an engine.
between ten and four hours. With confidence rising, Ford made the final step to
his brand new and improved production line by building chains that are heavy-duty and durable to transport a car’s chassis through a continuousmotion assembly line.5
In our modern times we’ve gotten used to complicated manufacturing
process, but it’s impossible to underestimate the significance of this new technology
at the time it was first introduced in large numbers when it was first introduced by Ford. It would take more than
Twelve and a half hours to make the Model T. After the production line is assembled,
This time, the speed was reduced to ninety-three seconds. Ford was able to sell 16.5 million units.
parts of the iconic car. In its peak it was a mammoth Highland Park
factory would be rolling a fresh Model T through its doors once every forty years.
The clanging chains and the roaring welding machines of the early 20th century.
Automobile factories may appear to be quite a distance from our present time
Knowledge workers scribbling emails on computer screens that are sleek and stylish. But , as I
We have already mentioned Ford’s invention and the impact it had in the global world
industrial manufacturing, can provide an a very useful analogy for
knowing what is required to avoid the suffering of hyperactive
In the autumn of 2019 The Wall Street Journal reported on an incident in German
Entrepreneur identified as Lasse Rheingans, who established a unique practice at
his company of 16 people is a five-hour day of work. Rheingans
He wasn’t just trying to cut down on the time that his employees were spending in the office, but also the total
hours they work all day. They start at about eight in the morning.
and will leave approximately one in the late afternoon. In the daytime, social media is
Excluded, meetings severely restricted, and email check-ins restricted. If
when they’re finished with their work when they’re finished, they’re not actually done until the next day–no
late-night keyboard sessions No shady smartphone messages
when their kids participate in sports events, while their professional activities are limited to
time in the office. The bet of Rheingans was that, once you’ve been there, you’ll never want to go back.
Eliminated distractions as well as endless discussions about work eliminated all distractions and endless conversations about work,
The hours per day are enough to allow people to accomplish the most important tasks.
it was important for the business.
Then, shortly after this profile on Rheingans came out, The New York
Times requested me to compose an opinion piece about his experiment. It was published in
The paper was published a few weeks after.
“The Wall Street Journal wrote about Mr.
Rheingans’s method is ‘radical his approach as radical,” I wrote. “[ButI’ve come to consider
The thing that’s revolutionary is the fact that more organisations aren’t
conducting similar experiments.” To back up my assertion, I referred to the tale of
Henry Ford and the assembly line. The most important lesson from the tale is
in the manufacturing of products in a capital-driven marketplace
economy The amount of resources you have isn’t enough on its own to
predict your profitability. In the months leading up to model T Model T, for example,
Ford didn’t have the capital than his rivals. In fact, at certain
important points, he likely did not have as many. (At the time Ford’s first Model A
Was sold, at a price of $750, to an Chicago dentist. The dentist was left with only $223 cash
) Yet, at the year 1914 Ford began to produce cars at a price
that made it ten-times more profitable than other automobile businesses.
What was just as important as the amount of capital he owned was the way it was used.
It was deployed.
After the Ford revolution, this concept took on a new meaning.
fundamental to management in the industrial sector. It’s generally accepted that
continuous industrial growth calls for constant testing and
Re-inventing the processes used to create the goods we purchase. Peter Drucker
In an article from 1999 that is classic the obsession with industrial development
It was a hugely successful book. In the words of Drucker to the reader that since 1900, the
The productivity of manual laborers was increased by the fifty-fold increase! “The
The productivity of manual workers has led to what we refer to as
“Developed” economies,” the author writes. “On this feat rests all
the social and economic gains in the 20th century.”8
When we shift our attention to work on knowledge and look at this, we see that
the same enthusiasm for experimentation and inventing is missing. That’s what I do.
that I was referring to that I was writing in the Times I was saying that there is a dearth of experiments similar to Lasse
Rheingans’s five-hour working day was “radical.” Rheingans is contemplating
About his company that has a Henry Ford mindset, by this I mean he’s
seeking out new and innovative ways to utilize his capital to generate greater value.
Shortly after my Times Op-Ed was published The Rheingans family reached out to me, and
we had a discussion about his work and life at the company. He said that his
Five-hour workday experiments have been in operation for two years so far.
That he had no intention of changing the setup any time very soon.
The process of achieving this transformation was, however, a bit of a struggle. I
He asked Rheingans how he convinced his employees not to check emails. Rheingans was asked by his employees how he persuaded them to
constantly. “The answer isn’t quite so simple as you think,” he told me.
The suggestion that they should not check their email as often wasn’t enough to many of his team. He
Ended up hiring coaches from outside to help reinforce “that you are always checking your email or on social media.”
The media is constantly a distraction and isn’t going to assist the players.” Coaches are also advised
employees to take on stress-reducing meditation exercises such as
Meditation is a way to enhance their physical fitness through exercises such as yoga.
The goal of Rheingans was for everyone to take a step back; to take their time when they work.
more thoughtfully and less frantic in a more deliberate and calm manner; to recognize they had been
“running throughout the day but not being able to get anyplace.” These shifts in
in the meantime, five hours was enough time to complete the
jobs that would have required more time.
Rheingans is among only a handful of business executives who are willing to dramatically change their ways
alter the fundamental foundations of our work in the digital age
brains. In the present, the majority of businesses are stuck in performance
rapidsand of hyperactive hive mind’s flow the content you want to concentrate on
adjustments to make up for the worst of its deviations to make up for its most outrageous. This is the mindset that
results in “solutions” such as enhancing expectations about responses to emails
times or writing more effective topics or writing better. It encourages us to use texts
autocomplete is a feature of Gmail autocomplete in Gmail, which allows us to write faster messages or search for messages faster.
The feature is available in Slack allows us to better quickly locate what we’re looking for in
the flurry of back-and-forth conversation. They are the work of the mind.
equivalents to speeding up the process of making cars through giving
the workers ‘ faster shoes. It’s a tiny victory in the wrong battle.
Lasse Rheingans and myself aren’t alone to take note of the stakes in the
Table in the table in this table in this. In the 1999 article mentioned earlier, Peter Drucker
Notes that, in regards to productivity-oriented thinking the knowledge work was where
Industrial manufacturing began in 1900, that is, prior to the revolution.
tests that increased productivity by fifty percent. We’re on the cusp of a breakthrough,
In other words, to achieve similarly huge increases in the economy.
efficiency of the knowledge industry If we’re willing to be serious about
We are questioned about how we work. Drucker describes this as a push to transform knowledge into work
more productive than the “central problem” of our age more productive, by writing “It is on
productivity of knowledge work, most importantly, will ensure the future prosperity and
Indeed, the survival of the advanced economies will be increasingly
We can grasp both the necessity as well as the potential for this shift in mindset
according to the following principles, that is the basis for all
practical suggestions that fill part 2 of this book.
Attention Capital Principle Attention Capital Principle
The effectiveness of the knowledge industry can be substantially increased if we
find workflows that enhance the brain’s capacity to continuously enhance
Information is valuable.
In the industrial sector the principal capital resources were the materials
There are a few ways to make use of this capital have returned much more
worth more than other (think of the method of assembly versus craft methods). The
Knowledge sector, however the principal capital resources are human
Brains that you can employ to enrich information — what I refer to as attention
capital. But the same principles apply different strategies for the deployment of this
capital may yield different returns. Based on the data I looked at in
Part 1, it’s evident that the constant brain-assisted switch of networks was required.
The hyperactive hive mind is not optimal by the hyperactive hive mind, but in a certain sense,
The cognitive equivalent to the old craft method of making cars. To obtain
the dramatic increases in productivity the way Peter Drucker prophesied for the
the twenty-first century will require a determination to identify ways to
Knowledge work that generates greater returns.
The subsequent chapters will discuss specific ideas regarding what these chapters are about.
Better ways to deploy attention capital could include. You’ll be taught about
Benefit of shifting your concentration on optimizing your business instead of optimizing people
procedures, and the importance of detaching the specialized work from
administrative efforts. You’ll also hear me argue to greatly reduce
the quantity of work performed by an average knowledge worker performs inexplicably
is expected to complete the task, and you’ll see several case studies on the way.
approach of individuals, such as Lasse Rheingans, and the organizations who are open to
to explore better options. Before moving to these particulars,
However, the rest part of the chapter be centered on general
Best practices to put the principle of attention capital to work.
A Case Study Devesh Hears the Hive Mind
Let’s get started exploring the concept of attention capital by using the concrete example of
case study case study: an entrepreneur called Devesh who applied these concepts to
Change the way he works in his tiny marketing company. Devesh’s firm has the services of a
The group of employees is largely remote scattered all over America and the United States and
Europe. The geographical diversity includes a vast span of time
zones, required a dependency on tools that communicate asynchronously, such as
email. Similar to many other companies with similar circumstances, Devesh’s business
It soon became entangled in the hyperactive hive brain work, along with its
events unfolding in a never-ending sequence of email back-and-forth
messages. As Devesh says the situation, it resulted in a difficult days of
taking care of to an inbox “filled with design and notes files, single messages and
One email that addressed several different projects.”
Like many business owners who are overwhelmed by the buzz of the mind
process, Devesh initially tried to resolve the issue through the
communication more efficient. Along with other actions that he took, he changed his phone to make
Company company Gmail that can do a better job of automatically the grouping
messages into threads and gives an attractive smartphone application that lets
employees to stay on top of their conversations even when away from their desks.
These efforts to improve efficiency however, did not address the root issue of
There was some fundamental flaw in overwhelming amount of the frenetic
communications that motivated their work. According to Devesh told me that he and
His employees felt “bombarded” with messages, that “dictated” how they should behave.
were spending their spent their. It became more apparent that this could not be the case.
is the most efficient method of executing the most effective way to perform. In our new language,
Devesh worried that he would get only a modest return from this operation of his
The attention capital of a company.
In a reminiscence of Henry Ford’s playbook Devesh started
Exploring radical new ways to organize his company’s work.
The most important insight he had was the fact that, when workers relied on the hive mind their
The days were governed by the messages that came in, which dictated the way they
They worked on and kept moving back and forth across a variety of
projects at the same time, which limits the amount of time they devote to each
One goal. Devesh determined to change this trend. He was looking for his
employees to choose what they will be working on, and then after they had made that decision, they could
option, be sure to keep their focus on this decision to the point that they felt ready
and then move on to another. To accomplish this new objective, Devesh abandoned the hive
mind model that allows everything was sent through the general purpose inbox of each employee. He designed his company’s workflow in the form of an online-based project
Management tool known as Trello.
When you create an account in Trello it creates an individual web page
is referred to as is a “board” which is shared with collaborators who are relevant. It is then possible to include
Named columns for the board. In each column, you place “cards” in
A “stack,” creating a solitaire-style collection that is lined up vertically.
Each card comes with a brief description on the front after which, when you click it, you will be taken to the next page.
Gain access to more detail on the back of the file, including the file
attachments documents, tasks lists, notes and even discussion.
As per my suggestion, Devesh sent me a photo of an Trello board that is used to
One of the ongoing advertising campaigns. It included the following four
Notes, Research & Notes. This stack of cards include background
details that are relevant to the campaign. On one of these cards
for instance, the notes taken from an earlier call, for instance, and another
This article offers some suggestions on how to increase the number of emails received by clients. list.
Backlog. The cards in this stack detail a specific project element that
must be completed by a certain point however it isn’t currently being developed
accessible to anyone at the at the moment. A card could be used to provide information, for instance,
an action in which any new testimonials from clients need to add to
Designing and implementing. The cards that are in these two stacks
explain the steps of the project currently being implemented. The
Design stacks contain obviously, design-related steps as well as the
Implementing stack is focused on the other steps that are necessary to carry
Out the marketing campaign. There are many people who work on these two
elements, therefore it is sensible to keep them in separate. Importantly every one of them is made up of
These cards, when clicked, will display the details of the
step, but also its current state and an active comment section
in which people can have the opportunity to ask and answer questions, as well as delegate
the responsibility to complete important tasks associated with the card. The card is responsible for the completion of key tasks. Certain
Some of these cards include checklists of sub-tasks some are equipped with checklists of sub-tasks.
deadlines, which are displayed in vibrant colors underneath the card’s name. There are many
Have the relevant files attached directly.
As Devesh told me, his efforts at the firm focus on
Trello. If you’re assigned to a particular project that includes all your work will be tracked, including
discussions, delegations, and pertinent files are coordinated through the basis of
A corresponding board — not in email messages and not in Slack chats. If you
If you decide to take on a particular project and then go to the board and begin working with the
cards. Once project steps have been completed and completed, the cards can be transferred from the backlog to
the columns in use. When new ideas are conceived or clients make additional requests,
They may be added in the research and notes column. When there is a need to ask questions or
work must be delegated. These notes are attached to the discussion about
on the reverse of the pertinent card, on which everyone who is involved in the project will be able to
Prior to these changes, every employee’s day was governed by their
inbox. They would check it before they began working in the morning. and then
respond to messages until you are done. In the new workflow based on Trello,
Each employee’s efforts are now controlled by project boards, which rotate
through throughout the day. Even though email is still utilized to send non-urgent messages
Administrative issues and private one-onone conversations, and its importance
The number of emails you check is drastically reduced. You can have a look at once or
every day, just like every day, like a physical mailbox.
This new workflow promotes the use of single-tasking. If Devesh is working on one of his
When employees choose to take on a particular project, there is no other information they have is
The discussion that they read on their board is related with the work. This lets them know how the
Stay focused on only one issue until they’re ready proceed. If they’re you’re using an
general-purpose inbox they were always changing to a general-purpose inbox.
and back and forth between a variety of projects, and sometimes within the same
message is a state of mind that’s unhappy and unproductive.
Another benefit to this process is the fact that it clearly outlines every step of the
relevant information on a specific project. The firm of Devesh utilized to
Rely on the hyperactive mind This information was spewed all over the world.
In emails, randomly, in the various employees’
inboxes. It is better to have it neatly organized in named columns, and with the
pertinent files and discussions with clearly marked cards, are a lot more
More efficient method to keep on top of the work and efficiently plan what needs to be done.
must be completed the next time.
When I first saw Devesh’s Trello boards I had a reaction the same as
those of automakers that first came across a fully functional assembly
Line at the Henry Ford’s Highland Park factory: a realisation that this was
It’s a method of organizing work. Devesh believes. His employees seem
are incredibly happy to be no longer dependent on email as the primary driver of their
efforts to date, and there are any major issues or decreases in performance.
In addition, Devesh has no interest in reverting to the traditional way of
working. To highlight the extent to which things have transformed in the professional
Life, he sent me a photo of his email inbox for business. In all of
In the month prior, he not participated in any emails, and had only sent
and receiving a total of 44 messages. It’s averaging of
just a little more than two messages per working day. “It’s an amazing thing,” he
This kind of transformational workflow is easy to define but is often difficult to describe.
it is difficult to put into practice. There are many hurdles to overcome that must be overcome before you can figure out
Find out where you should determine where to focus your attention and to alter the way you think
on issues such as inconvenience or additional overhead in order to get everyone on
Your team is to be on the team on the same group on the same. The remainder part of this chapter is going to discuss the top strategies for keeping
strategies to overcome these obstacles in the event that you try to implement the
Attention Capital Principle in your personal or in your professional life.
Create Structures Based on Autonomy
Chapter 3 addressed one of the key questions: What if the hyperactive hive mind works that way, then why is it
Ineffective, but how come it is so well-liked? In reality, it is a significant component of the answer is
The information provided was about the exact individual who was identified as a the knowledge worker
productivity as the main issue of the twenty-first century: Peter
Drucker. As mentioned previously, in between 1950 and 1960, Drucker helped
the business world recognizes the development of work-related knowledge as an important
the economy. One of his most important messages was about the importance of
autonomy. “The knowledgeable worker isn’t controlled closely or under supervision within
Detail,” he wrote in the year 1967. “He must be in control of himself. “11
Drucker saw his knowledge-based work over skilled and
The creative process can be broken down into a set of repetitive tasks which could be
The managers of workers have the right to prescribe their employees in the same way as it was for manual labor.
There was simply no way to approach something so abstract and come up
by implementing a brand new business strategy or inventing a brand technologically advanced industrial
process, and narrow it to a clearly defined sequence of steps that can be
This focus on autonomy was significant, and is a significant step
to explain the stubbornness of the brain’s hive mind. As I argued,
When you delegate decisions regarding productivity to an person when you delegate productivity decisions to an individual, it’s not
It is a bit of a surprise that you are stuck with an easy low-cost, flexible, and flexible
Denominator-style workflows like that of the hyperactive brain.
We are in a bind. On one hand autonomy is
In the realm of knowledge work, it is not possible to avoid because of the complexity of these tasks. It is
On the other hand on the other hand, autonomy is a key element in hive-mind-style workflows. To
If we are to succeed in applying the principle of attention capital to apply the attention capital principle, we must find a way to do it
To escape this trap, we must. To get out of this trap we’ll need to continue the place where Drucker left off, and
Clarify exactly what autonomy is important.
Knowledge work is more easily recognized as the result of two
components such as workflow and work execution. The first element, workflow
execution is the process of actually carrying out the value-creating tasks of knowledge work–the programming of the programmer execution, also known as
The press release is written by a publicist. This is how you earn value from
The second part of workflow is the one we identified in the
Introduction to the book. It explains how these essential tasks are carried out.
identified as a problem, assigned, coordinated assessed, assigned, coordinated and assessed. The hyperactive hive brain
is a workflow. So is Devesh’s system for project boards. If work execution is
What is the source of value? workflows define the process.
Once we have a clear understanding of how these two components refer to two distinct
Things, we discover ways to avoid the trap of autonomy. If Drucker
The man was adamant about autonomy, he was thinking about the execution of work in these terms.
The processes are usually too complex to be reduced to rote routines.
Workflows however should not be left to individual users to work out
in their own right, as the most efficient systems will not emerge in a natural way.
They should instead be identified in a clear manner as an element of the organisation’s
If I’m the manager of an development team I shouldn’t inform my computer to do anything.
programmers to create specific routines. But, I’d like to consider a number of times
regarding the number of routines they’re required to create about how many routines they write, and what the tasks are
monitored, how we manage our code base and who else is part of the
The organization can be able to annoy them with their concerns, etc. (For more details on how to radically
innovative procedures for programmers. Check out this case study of extreme
Programming within chapter 7.)
We can see this division working in Devesh’s marketing firm. With the help of
Project management is akin through Trello boards. Devesh was not adamant about how his team could work.
actually carried out the essential tasks of creating and deploying marketing
campaigns. What he did alter his approach to processes that
supported these activities–including how information about these projects
was tracked, as well as how relevant information and queries were
communicated. He redesigned workflows, but he did not divulge the specifics of work
execution to his highly skilled execution to his skilled. This division is also present throughout the majority of
of the cases as well as examples in the chapters to come.
We can’t put the blame on Drucker of not making the distinction
his first research work. The 1950s, and the 1960s, during which time he
When the first time this issue was discussed when the idea of employee’s being autonomous was not a new concept.
radical in that there was not much the room for the subtle. It was enough of a challenge to
simply persuade people to accept the authoritarian method that was a source of
this incredible expansion in the industrial sector could not be applicable to this particular
A type of brain-focused type of brain-centric.
Drucker did well in his efforts to spread an auto-spiritual gospel the masses.
the skeptical public, and those of us who are involved in the sector of knowledge
Today, we are the benefitting from these evident arguments. We can’t,
But, don’t do not stop here. To make the grand promise of capital of attention
In principle, we should take Drucker’s advice and push the theories
to their next level of the next stage of their complexity. Making workflows more distinct and
Work execution is essential for us to maintain our progress in improving understanding
Sector productivity. To reap the full benefit of capital attention is to begin
The way we structure our work. This won’t hinder the
independence of workers in the field of knowledge, but instead , sets them up to be able to make a profit
More from their talent and imagination.
Reduce Context Switches, and reduce Overload
Henry Ford began experimenting with more efficient ways of making automobiles in the early years of his career.
1900s. One hundred years later Devesh started to experiment with methods to improve his work.
offer marketing services to customers. Through these efforts, we must acknowledge that Ford did have an
advantage. When it comes to the production of automobiles, this is a clear
What is it that makes one process superior to one other: speed. This design principle
Faster is better than slower, as demonstrated by Ford’s effort and let Ford to
directly link improvements in manufacturing processes that are low-level to
Bottom line. When working in the field of knowledge the equation gets more complicated. If
You are trying to improve your workflow to create greater return on your investment
Attention capital is what you are looking for? The cognitive task?
similar to speed of production?
To answer this question, we can draw on the lessons learned from part 1 of this
book that documented the difficulties associated with the hyperactive mind. The book also discussed the problems with the hyperactive
workflow. In the previous chapters, I explained that there’s a huge cognitive
costs to switch your attention switching your focus from one task to the next. Any process
which requires you to continuously monitor conversations that are happening in your inbox
Chat channel will lower the quality of the output of your brain. I’m too
It was argued that the feeling of overloading your communication is that you’ll never be able to keep
Up with all the various demands to your attention and timeup with all the different requests for your time and attention
Conflicts with our ancestors’ social structure, which can cause unhappy times in the short
short term, and burnout in the long run.
Based on these observations, I propose the following design principles
for identifying ways to work that will yield better results from your
Attention capital for personal or corporate to find processes that (1)
reduce mid-task context switches, and (2) limit the impact of
overload in communication. These two characteristics are work of knowledge
similar to Henry Ford’s fascination with speed. It’s the exact opposite of Henry Ford’s obsession with.
To understand this assertion, let’s begin with the primary property. A mid-task
The context switch happens the time to stop an entirely self-contained process
and shift your attention and focus on something else before returning to the
The original object to your attention. The most famous example of these switches is
the necessity of constantly returning to your instant messenger or email inbox
Channel to keep track of long-winded discussions about non-related topics.
These switches may even be analogue. In open office environments, for instance.
As an example, you may often be interrupted by other people who stop by to visit your
Sit down with your questions and if your workflow requires regular meetings or meetings, then
This will also split your schedule into fragments not enough to complete work on projects.
No matter the reason for these interruptions, they are always related to
creating value using your mind, the better you’re able to finish one task
one thing at a time doing one thing at a moment, and completing the one thing until it is completed before moving onto the nexttask,
the more effectively and efficiently you’ll be able to work. In the first part,
This is true for a variety of kinds of knowledge work, be it deep or conceptual thinking,
management, or even support or even support. The most effective way to utilize our human resources is to be able to manage or support them.
brains work working in a sequence.
The second feature mentioned in relation to efforts to decrease the cognitive burden
of feeling that everyone depends on to be there for you all the time. If all else is the same,
workflows that limit this never-ending flow of urgent communications
Are superior to those who rather amplify it. If you’re your home in the evening,
or relaxing during the weekend, or even on holiday, you shouldn’t be feeling the same as everyone else.
The time you take off to work could be an period where you’re building up your life.
communication debt. in the age hyperactive hive mind, there’s
We have gotten used to this depressed condition as a natural result of our
the world of high-tech, but this is not true. Better workflows could tame this feeling
of overwhelm and, in doing this, make you not just happier, but of course, more
Effective and less likely to get burned out over time.
When we revisit Devesh’s tale, we find these design principles at work in
action. The new workflow based on a project board removes mid-task context
switches. The communication about a project currently occurs only when you
Choose to load the project’s board, and then review any relevant card. There’s nothing to
general-purpose mailbox where you receive messages about a particular project
as he worked in while working on. Devesh was referring to this as “flipping on the screen”:
You decide when you should communicate about a project. You do not let the project dictate your communications.
decide for you.
Devesh’s workflow is also designed to reduce the number of communications that are flooded.
When interactions are transferred to specific cards for a particular task, they are associated with the task,
The feeling of the number of requests piling up less. If you decide to
When you visit a specific project board, you participate in the discussion. When you
If you’re not there, there’s no email address specific to you that’s expanding with
urgent requests and notifications.
The reduction of overload and context switches isn’t the only thing to consider when it comes to
when it comes to designing better workflows. This will guide you in the right direction when it comes to designing better workflows.
tests in the short term experiments in the short term, but in the longer future, you should be on the lookout for
the primary metric of bottom line that measures the quantity and quality of the output
you’re producing. If you’re working in a knowledge-based organization it’s about tracking the work
the impact of the new workflows on revenue. the impact of new workflows on an individual
Knowledge worker, this could be the speed at the speed at which you’re getting hit
milestones or the completion of projects.
The improvement in these numbers in the future will give confidence
was required to adopt innovative ways to work. Also, it is important to be able to stick with new ways of working if
modifications that result in these measures getting worse, you’ve got the proof that you
Did you go too far, hindering the activities that are essential to your achievement. The
The key is to figure out ways to limit the effects of overstress and context shifting but still
doing what has to be completed.
Don’t Fear Inconvenience
When I relayed Devesh’s tale to other experts They were able to predict
There were some questions. As they considered changing their own businesses away
away from the hyperactive hive mind to a more organized mind from the hyperactive hive mind, such as
The project board workflow of Devesh’s They quickly conjured up possibilities
issues. Inability to catch the attention of people for any reason anytime
may result in deadlines being missed or urgent tasks not being completed.
either completed or have long delay before you can get the information you require to complete your research
the progress of key project steps. The project has moved beyond its simplicity. the
The hyperactive hive brain also could produce a continuous stream of
It can be a hassle for everyone involved.