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The examples given above are intended to encourage more practical thinking.

The specifics of how you actually optimize these interfaces will depend on the specifics of your

certain sort of work. An abstract approach to think about this optimization is to imagine it as a

It is to imagine that every support unit is an electronic counter that, by some

magic, it is able to keep track of the total amount of hours of attention that the device can track.

Separated from other employees as this week. The ultimate goal is then

It is simply to reduce the amount of feasible while remaining

Executing the core tasks. There are no counters like this however, they do this is a neat way of

illustrates the shift in the way we think about this method of help causes.

Last but not least, I have to admit to feeling a little nervous regarding these

concepts. A moral hazard when the pursuit of more expertise is the anxiety

of creating a sharp distinction between those who love their work, and an

Support professionals in the underclass are restricted to overwork. My suggestion

Support units in this case should be prepared to make their own tasks more difficult to

help specialists’ work more easily and, while being self-serving, it appears to

We can steer our discussion towards this trap. In this light I’d like to

propose two defenses.

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In the first place, reorienting support personnel to maximize the output of specialists

isn’t necessary to make the working routine of the former

miserable. My initial idea in this article was about ways to bring more

Structure into support processes to avoid hyperactive hive brain overdrive.

The idea is still valid to changing your focus to create your own device

As efficient as is possible in aid your business to maximize its worth as possible

as is possible, doesn’t have to compromise the quality or longevity of the job.


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My third argument is that regardless of whether we are in favor of this suggestion the fact is that it’s

Economic real. If a knowledge-based organization produces

important cognitive outputs in a competitive market, it’s a given that the support units that prioritizing this output will create an impact.

The organization will be more effective than if instead it let each unit focus on its own

focusing its attention on its internal goals. To be crystal clear the unit is not to be

being considered less important, and no one should ever be allowed to be treated as less important or disrespected.

accept a stressful workplace. However, there is more than these

basic principles, but it’s an untruth that companies aren’t democracies,

Employees and employers aren’t all not of rights and liberties

that surround their efforts. In simpler terms: they have no idea how to work

No business has ever conquered a market due to the internal effectiveness of

its HR department.

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3. Supercharging Ideas #3: To be a Final Hotel, Recreate Your Own

Support Staff

The two ideas above concern the function of support personnel in large

knowledge work organisations. Implementing these ideas is a must.

You’re in a position that has authority, such as CEO or the the head of a major division. If

Instead, you’re an employee with this power, yet struggling from the fact that

If you’re struggling to find the right support, you’re not completely lost. In this

In such a option, I would suggest resembling your own support


One method to achieve this goal is to split your time into two parts.

two distinct groups: support and specialist. For example, perhaps 12:00 to

The hours of 1:00 p.m. from 3:00 until 3:00 to p.m. are the hours of support. In all other times,

You act as if operate in a highly specialized company you act as if you are in a specialized organization: concentrate on the professionals.

work that is directly generating the most value. Avoid answering administrative emails.

Attend administrative meetings and concentrate on what you do best, like you’re

an XP developer. During support hours you should behave as if you’re

Full-time support staffer whose goal is to create your expert alter self

as effective as possible. Make sure you don’t get lost in your emails at these times,

But actually, follow the tips provided above and establish procedures to

Reduce the feeling of overwhelm that you feel when you are juggling these logistics

matters. (The principal chapter on the process offers specific strategies

people can use their resources for the purpose.) It is possible to optimize the

Interactions between these two sides of your life at work by making

simple bins to collect you can put away your own the administrative

work that can later be tackled by your self-support. Perhaps you have the text of your notes for

This is the reason or a real plastic bin to collect your garbage on your desk to collect it.

drop forms, or reminds you write onto paper (an initial idea

suggested in the name of David Allen).

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If you’re looking to be more advanced, think about having two different email addresses

addresses. I use this technique to a certain degree as an instructor. I’m an

Email contact for domain was given to me by

The university. The university is where I get every official letter from the university.

and I utilize it in the best way I can to deal with administrative issues. I also own an

The address is hosted by a server located in our department for

domain. I use it to communicate with my colleagues, other professors, students, and

postdocs that I supervise, and the research colleagues I supervise. The previous address

My support self is part of me and the second is my specialist self.

Another method is to allocate entire days to these tasks. Perhaps

Wednesday and Tuesday are both support days, as are Wednesday, Monday, and

Fridays are designated days. Some jobs do not allow such a the dramatic shift in

Your behavior may be a problem, but should it be yours it, you can see the greatness in such a clear

division. I’ve met people who practice this rule who have different places

— coming into the office on assistance days, for instance working from home

the home they are in when they play their work.

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This notion of trying to appear as two distinct kinds of workers

It may appear a bit heavy-handed it’s not, but there’s a remarkable amount of effectiveness.

benefit from separating the different categories of effort. As we’ve seen in Part 1,

swiftly switching between specialist and support work

lowers your capacity to think and results in lower quality work that you produce.

slower pace. One hour is dedicated to a difficult project, then followed by an

hours dedicated to administrative tasks will result in more than

output. This is more so if you blend the two attempts into two hours dispersed


Technology has played a role in pushing us down the path of less specialization.

and an increase in overload. Personal computers eventually enabled it to be used to

experts to manage more support and work, and tackle an overwhelming amount of

of obligations was of obligation became the of the norm, thereby establishing the of obligations, which helped to cement the hyperactive

Hive mind workflow is the ideal solution for managing our busy professional


Reimagining work therefore first needs to be more specific. Let the

Knowledge workers who have the ability to create value concentrate on implementing those skills.

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expertise and create a strong and well-equipped support staff to manage

Everything else. This is a move towards the reduction of (but better) and better, based on a foundation of balance

between support and specialization is essential to the growth of

Knowledge work is a process of transforming knowledge from its present ineffective chaos to create something far more

More organised.


The Twenty-First-Century


In 1998, the famous social critique Neil Postman gave an important speech that was titled

“Five Things We Must Be aware of regarding Technological Change.”1

He began to open

in saying that even though there were no solutions to every problem

in the field of the latest technology, he might discuss some of the issues pertaining to modern technology. the technology he has encountered.

thirty years of study on the subject for over thirty years. Every single one of his ideas are extremely important. He

discussed, for instance, about the trade-offs present in every

technological revolution: “For every advantage a technological advancement offers there

There is always a disadvantage.” The author also said that there is always a corresponding disadvantage.

Advantages and disadvantages are not “distributed equally” between the


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This is the 4th of five ideas but one that I’d like to think about, because it is the most important.

The article outlines the mental framework I’ve been trying to create the framework I’ve attempted to construct

This book:

Technological changes are not additive, it’s environmental. . . . A brand new

Medium does not bring anything but it alters everything. In the

in 1500, when the invention of the printing press the year 1500, there was no printing press.

Old Europe as well as Printing presses. There was a distinct Europe.

Postman’s concept clarifies the confusion cognitive dissonance that plagues many

People are concerned about the online communication tools, such as email. Logically we

Know that email is a better method to send messages than the technologies that it

Superseded: It’s universal, fast and, in essence, free. Anyone over the age of

enough to be able to remember the process of clearing jammed fax machines, or fumbling to open

the red-thread tie on the worn memo folders it’s obvious that email is a necessity.

cleverly tackles real issues that were once very frustrating.

In the same way we’re getting tired of our inboxes, and they are a constant source of stress.

They can be as much as a cause of stress and stress as they can be a productivity positive.

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These dual reactions–admiration and detestation–are confusing and leave

many knowledgeable workers with a sense of discontent.

Drawing on the work of Postman is a way to be able to gain clarity. The problem is that we are prone to

to consider email as a supplement to think of email as an additive 2021 is similar to the office of

1991 plus faster messaging. However, this isn’t true. Email isn’t additive.

ecological. The 2021 office isn’t the office of 1991, but it has a few additional

capabilities. It’s not an entirely different office, one where you can employees work

is a continuous and chaotic flow of messages that is

The workflow I described as hyperactive mind, which I called the hive mind. We weren’t used to working like this.

In a different way, however we are enmeshed in the demands of the hive mind in a way, we

Find ourselves overwhelmed by superficial work and a struggle to be important work done.

work completed and yet being miserable and unhappy.

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The first chapter of the book is my effort at defining this complex. In

in addition to clarifying the hyperactive hive mind work flow and explaining the

numerous ways it affects our lives at work and I delved deeper into the

complicated forces that led to it becoming the case (which can be said to be quite complex)

is to do with the Peter Drucker, a management theorist,’s early insistence on the importance of knowledge

worker autonomy). The way I saw it: email was the catalyst for hive-mind work

It’s possible, but it doesn’t create the possibility of it becoming possible, but it didn’t make it. In the sense of being stuck.

Working this way. The title of the volume, A World Without Email will be a good example of this.

to be a simple shorthand for the more precise depiction of my

vision A world without The Hyperactive Hive Mind Workflow.

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This reality is now established, in the second chapter of this book, I made a shift in my

Attention is drawn away to the negative aspects of this process to focus on the positive aspects.

opportunities when we understand that we have the ability to substitute it. Perhaps

The most significant observation that I made during the 2nd section of the book

in the first chapter, in which I noted the efficiency of an average manual had been lowered in the first chapter, where I noted that the productivity of the average

the amount of laborers increased by over fifty times between 1900 and 2000. The

The reason why this is so significant is the fact that, near the end the life of Peter Drucker, the

the man who coined knowledge work, evaluated the effectiveness of

Knowledge workers are now what manual labor was in 1900. Also,

we’ve barely begun to think about the best way to work in the new environment.

Economic sector. Therefore, the potential gains in productivity that could result from breaking

the grip of hyperactive hive mind’s workflow is amazing–on

in the several hundred billions in more GDP, or more.

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One famous billionaire Silicon Valley CEO told me in the course of our recent discussion

we discussed our common fascination with this topic: “Knowledge worker

The rise of productivity is the moonshot for the 21st century.”

To aid in organising this hugely crucial undertaking, I created

Attention pay attention to capital theory. Once you have accepted that capital theory is the capital resource is the most important one, you will be able to accept that.

in your work with knowledge is the human brains that you employ (or better,

the brain’s ability to process the information they are focusing on and create new information

which is more useful) that’s more valuable) economics will take over and transform it

The success of your business is contingent on the way you manage the capital.

If you look through the theoretical lens The hyperactive hive mind

It is only one of several ways to implement this deployment. This process

It has the benefit of being simple and flexible, however it also comes with the benefit of being easy and flexible, but it also has

The disadvantage of earning a low rate of return on your capital. This

will be familiar to you, considering the story begins with capital

deployments prior to moving to alternatives which are more complex, but also

more lucrative is one which, as I explained that it was repeated several times throughout the course of the course of

An earlier, disruptive collision of commerce and technology: the industrial


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The remaining portion of Part 2 was devoted to different ideas for the design process.

smarter workflows, that is, methods to carry out knowledge-based tasks that will be more

Effective than just connecting everyone to an inbox and then letting them

The rock and roll genre. The concepts in these last chapters aren’t intended to be the basis for a

complete playbook, since I’m an academic and not a business professional yet, but I

Hope that their uniqueness will help in stimulating the development of innovative

strategies that are custom-designed to meet the specific conditions that determine your

personal or professional organization.

At the close of his address, Neil Postman said: “In the past, we’ve experienced

Technological advancements in the behavior of sleep-walkers. . . . This is a type of

foolishness, particularly in an age of rapid technological development.” It was

100% correct. Digital-era knowledge work is according to any fair basis

Historical scale, a new event. It’s ahistorically absurd and

It is naive to think that the simple workflows were a jumbled-up mess

The immediate consequences of these technological innovations are arguably the most beneficial

ways to organize this difficult different type of work. Of course we didn’t

make sure that this is done correctly in the first attempt. To not have done this was to be a crime.

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exceptional. If you look at it in this way it is evident that the work of

The contents of this book do not have anything to have to do with an anti-technology reaction. The

Luddites today are those who long for the past and remain in the past

hyperactive hive brain, saying that there’s no reason to continue striving

Improve how we work in an the ever-increasing high-tech world.

Once we have a better understanding of the causes of our frustrations by knowing

Our work is a priority, and we are aware our capacity to transform these efforts into something more than just

hugely better at being productive. However, it is also vastly more satisfying and fulfilling

sustainable. This could be among the most thrilling and powerful

issues that virtually no one talks about . . . yet. “We must move forward

and our eyes,” concluded Postman, “so we can make use of

technology, rather than being used by technology, rather than be used by.” You’re among the millions of people who use

overwhelmed by your inbox, hoping that there is an alternative method to help

Work in a society driven by the constant stream of information, it’s time to get back to work.

to let your eyes open.

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I began to work on this book shortly after I finished the book.

the manuscript to Deep Work. In the moment I realized that I’d only scratched the

The surface of the vast terrain of problems affecting the work of knowledge in

The age of digital networks, but I had to make sense of these issues

ideas into a helpful structure. The fall of 2015 was the time to organize my thoughts into a useful framework Deep Work was a way to organize your thoughts into a useful framework. Deep Work was

Being prepared for printing and my mind was towards what could

Next and then I was looking through paperbacks at the Barnes &

Noble located in Bethesda, Maryland (now, unfortunately it is closed) when I was there

I came across a copy Jaron Lanier’s work Who Owns the Future? I came across the book while browsing

amazed by the way he added his criticism of the economic impact

of the internet’s infrastructure by presenting a bold and concise suggestion of an

alternative. As I stood in the aisle, with the book, a surprise came to me

All at once, it seemed to unify the confusion of research

my intuitions that I’d been fighting the question: What if work did not need email?

The first person with whom I presented this vision to was my wife Julie, who

is helping me to evaluate and shape book concepts since the day I signed my first

agreement deal Random House at the age of 21. She’s the main filter.

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Through this, I’m running every book idea that I have in the beginning Her enthusiasm created the stage for

the entire process is in motion. The second person who heard the pitch was me.

long-standing literary agent and mentor to publishing Laurie Abkemeier, who,

It is also interesting to note that he has worked alongside me ever since I was just twenty-one.

She also encouraged me to think about the idea and thus began the process of developing a lengthy,

A tense, exciting, and intellectually thrilling research that eventually resulted in

I am bringing my book to the market, and my editor is at Portfolio, Niki

Papadopoulos along with the publisher of the imprint, Adrian Zackheim, were

I was ecstatic, and purchased this book, along and Digital Minimalism (which I

It was the first time that they published in the year 2019.). Niki was later to play an a key part in

the development of this book and my polishing of the style and style

to tackle these issues generally, efforts that I am constantly

grateful. I would also like to be grateful to the PR team at Portfolio. I am grateful. Portfolio which includes Margot

Stamas along with Lillian Ball, with whom I collaborated closely on Digital

Minimalism, and I am privileged to collaborate with them once more on the release as

and Mary Kate Skehan, who was in charge of the marketing, as well as Kimberly

Meilun, who was responsible for the publication information.

The amount of writing friends, colleagues relatives,

my neighbors who have listened to me speak about this book concept throughout the over the years,

and then offered wise and insightful advice. There are far too many to count and, in turn, offered smart advice.

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Their willingness to provide the feedback certainly was a significant factor.

in sharpening my thoughts. In closing, I would like to acknowledge the contributions to my

Editor at The New Yorker, Joshua Rothman was the editor at The New Yorker who asked me to write

Two articles in this time that touch on subjects discussed in this book. Two of these

The overlapping of efforts helped speed up the speed that I was able gather

relevant research and his editorial direction has helped me improve my research and my writing.

Writing and thinking about these subjects.


Introduction: The Hyperactive Hive mind

1. Chris Anderson, Free: The Future of the Radical price (New York, Hyperion in 2009) 4.

2. Radicati Group, Inc., Email Statistics Report, 2015-2019, Palo Alto, CA, March 2015.

3. Jory MacKay “Communication Overload Our Research shows that the majority of workers Can’t Make It 6

Minutes without checking email or IM” The RescueTime (blog) July 11 2018

4. Gloria Mark et al., “Email Duration, Batching and Self-Interruption: Patterns in email use on

Stress and Productivity,” The Proceedings from the CHI Conference on Human Factors in

Computing Systems, May 2016 1717-28. See table 2.

5. Adobe, “2018 Consumer Email Survey,” August 17, 2018,

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1. Chapter: Email Reduces Productivity

1. Victor M. Gonzalez and Gloria Mark, “‘Constant, Continuous, Multi-tasking Crazy” Management

Multiple Working Spheres” Proceedings of 2004 SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in

Computing Systems, April 2004, 112-120. I consider this paper “famous” due to the fact that it’s been quoted

More than seven hundred times, and is nearly always included in studies and articles about

focus and distractions in the workplace of today.

2. Gonzalez Mark and Gonzalez Mark, “‘Constant, Constant.'” Table 1 of this paper reveals an early version of the

information that indicates the evidence of this swap. In my conversations with Mark she elaborated and clarified the

Data, which includes in pointing out outside data points. The way I present the data I have described in my

The text is in line with the explanation that is contained in her personal letter.

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3. Judy Wajcman and Emily Rose, “Constant Connectivity: Rethinking Interruptions at Work,””

Organization Studies 32, no. 7 (July 2011): 941-61.

4. Gloria Mark et al., “Email Duration, Batching and Self-Interruption: Patterns in email use on

Productivity and Stress” The Proceedings from the CHI Conference on Human Factors in

Computing Systems, May 2016 1717-28.

5. Victoria Bellotti et al., “Quality Versus Quantity: E-mail-centric Task Management and Its

Relationship with overload,” Human-Computer Interaction 20 (2005) (pp. 89-138).

6. Gail Fann Thomas et al., “Reconceptualizing E-mail Overload,” Journal of Business and Technical

Communication 20 No. 3 (July 2006): 252-87.

7. Stephen R. Barley, Debra E. Meyerson and Stine Grodal “E-mail as an Symbol and Source of

Stress,” Organization Science 22, no. 4 (July-August 2011): 887-906.

8. Radicati Group, Inc., Email Statistics Report, 2015-2019, Palo Alto, CA, March 2015.

9. Jory MacKay “Communication Overload: Our Research shows that the majority of workers Can’t Make It 6

Minutes without checking email or IM” the blog of RescueTime (blog) 11 July 2018

10. Jory MacKay “The Real Cost of Email and IM The Time Limit is one hour and twelve minutes of

Uninterrupted Productive Time a Day,” RescueTime (blog), May 10, 2018,

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11. Deirdre Boden The Business of Talk: Organizations in Action (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press,

1994), 211. It is worth noting it was Boden wasn’t unquestionably enthusiastic about this particular development

in the realm of knowledge in knowledge-based work. In addition, she predicted “interactive” workplaces will be

“technologically complicated” in addition to “interpersonally complex and demanding.”

12. Take a look at this classic paper on prefrontal cortex and the attention that has been referenced

more than 10,000 times since its publication in 2001: Earl K. Miller and Jonathan D. Cohen,

“An Intuitive Theory for Prefrontal Cortex Function,” Annual Review of Neuroscience 24

(March 2001): 167-202.

13. Adam Gazzaley and Larry D. Rosen, The Distracted Mind: Old Brains with a Modern Age

(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 2016, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016), 77.

14. A. T. Jersild, “Mental Set and Shift,” Archives of Psychology 14 (No. 89 (1927): 1-81. This paper

Along with other papers on executive control I reviewed and was given to me

The attention of the helpful review of the literature that is included in the document: Joshua S. Rubinstein,

David E. Meyer, and Jeffrey E. Evans, “Executive Control of Cognitive Processes in the Task

“Switching,” Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 No. 4 (2001): 763-97.

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15. Gazzaley and Rosen observe that these experiments are very easy to experiment at your home. They

We suggest this version Consider the following: It is estimated how long it will take to traverse all the letters from A through J.

Then, go through the numbers 1 through and then through the numbers from 1 to. Then, determine the amount of time it takes you to add up

These tasks are accomplished by double counting the same number of times: i.e. A1 B2 C3 and etc. There should be a distinction between the

Letter and number counting draw upon two different networks.

16. Sophie Leroy, “Why Is It So Difficult to Do My Work? The challenge of attention residue When

Interrupting Work Tasks” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 109.

no. 2 (July 2009): 168-81.

17. Paul Graham, “Maker’s Schedule Manager’s Schedule” July 2009

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18. “Marshall is retiring as the Chief of Staff” George C. Marshall Foundation 17 November 2017

19. For more information on George Marshall’s timeline of career read “George Marshall: Timeline and Career. Marshall” Timeline &

Chronology,” George C. Marshall Foundation,

20. Lieutenant. Colonel. Paul G. Munch, “General George C. Marshall and General George C. Marshall and Army Staff: A Study in Efficacious

Staff Leadership” (research paper, National War College, Washington, DC, March 19 1992),

21. Christopher C. Rosen et Christopher C. Rosen and., “Boxed In by Your Inbox: Implications for daily e-mail demands for

Leaders’ Leadership Behaviors in Managers,” Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 104, No. 1 (2019): 19-33.

22. For more details on the development of Help-desk applications, refer to for instance Arthur Zuckerman, “History of

Help Desk Software: Evolution and Future Trends” February 2015,

23. The source of the quote is a 1983 interview with Angelou which was conducted by Claudia Tate (in

Conversations with Maya Angelou, ed. Jeffrey M. Elliot [Jackson: University Press of

Mississippi, 1989], 146-56). Along with numerous compelling stories about the creative processes of artists I

First came across this quotation in the classic underground book by Mason Currey. Daily Rituals: How

Artists at Work (New York, NY: Knopf 2013.).

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24. An additional note In 2019, I made contact with Sean in the year 2019, it was 3 years following my first

interviews, his company was been disbanded by that time, citing reasons that were not related to work I

I’ll add it — preventing me from reporting on his mind has changed from hyperactive brain to the hive mind

has changed as time passed. In a more recent email the two of us discussed how we’ve changed over time. Sean said that he would be fine if he ended in the end

Again, as a leader of a massive team, he intends to implement similar strategies to the hive mindto

The sound Slack notifications makes him shake.

Chapter 2: Email Makes Us Miserable

1. Harry Cooper, “French Workers get ‘Right to Disconnect”” Politico, December 31, 2016.

2. Gloria Mark et al., “Email Duration, Batching and Self-Interruption: Patterns in email use on

Stress and Productivity,” The Proceedings from the CHI Conference on Human Factors in

Computing Systems, May 2016 1717-28.

3. Fatema Akbar and co., “Email Makes You Get Hot: Studying Email Interruptions and Stress

Thermo Imaging,” Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing

Systems May 2019 1-14.

4. These final remarks are from Mark and others., “Email Duration.”

5. Magdalena Stadin et al., “Repeated Exposure to High ICT-related Workplace Demands, and the development of

Suboptimal Self-Rated Health: Results from a Four-Year Follow-Up from”the SLOSH Study,”

International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 1992 No. 5 (2019): 717-28.

6. Leslie A. Perlow, Sleeping with Your Smartphone: How to Stop the 24/7 Habit and Reset the way you sleep

How Your Do Your Work (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press 2012) 5.

7. Perlow is sleeping with Your Smartphone, 5. We’ll look back at Perlow’s response to this question later.

The details will be discussed in the following chapter in the next chapter, but the summary is this There is no way to make a decision that this

It was a good idea to work in a workflow however Perlow’s opinion was that it was a bit haphazardly

result of an uncontrolled feedback from an uncontrolled feedback loop.

8. John Freeman, The Tyranny of E-mail: A Four-Thousand-Year Travel to the Inbox (New

York: Scribner, 2011), 12.

9. Douglas Rushkoff, Present Shock Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now (New York Current 2013) 95.

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10. James Manyika et al., “Disruptive Technologies: Advances that will transform our lives,” Business,

as well as in the Global Economy,” McKinsey Global Institute 1 May, 2013,

11. The report by the Federal Reserve estimates more than sixty million “nonroutine cognitive”

Jobs in 2016, 2016 “Job Polarization” FRED Blog 28 April 2016.

was around 156 million: Erin Duffin, “Civilian labor force of the United States from

1990 to 2019,” Statista, January 30, 2020,

12. Researchers who study hunter-gatherer tribes that are still in existence insist on the importance of this, it’s a false assumption

to present these tribes as if they are unaltered from our Paleolithic past, they are

Modern humans who are cognitively sophisticated and have regular interaction with the modern world. As Yuval Noah

Harari highlights in the introduction the book Sapiens A Short Histories of Humankind (New York:

HarperCollins (2015, HarperCollins) It’s also worth recollecting the existence of these tribes exist

It is clear that there must be something special regarding them in comparison to the other people in the world.

numerous other groups that have changed their lives (e.g. Perhaps they are in the same environment).

It is difficult to sustain farming-based lifestyles). All in all they provide a glimpse into

Social dynamics of hunter-gatherers. To stay clear of falling into the trap of just so evolutionary stories,

If I decide to then extrapolate those dynamics to the forces that impact the modern brain I do so

with care, and marshaling using care, sifting through other contemporary forms of evidence to support their assertions.

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13. Nikhil Chaudhary et al., “Competition for Cooperation: Variability, Benefits, and Heritability of

Relational Wealth among Hunter-Gatherers” Scientific Reports 6, no. 29120 (July 2016): 1-7.

14. Abigail E. Page et al., “Hunter-Gatherer Social Networks and Reproductive Performance,” Scientific

Reports 7 Reports 7. 1153 (April 2017): 1-10.

15. Definitions for what is extremely connected to a network is interesting, however

Also, it is a bit technically. It is certain that the number of connections you’ve made to others

In the social network, it is crucial to consider in the social network, but also other metrics, such as proximity, centrality, and

betweenness, which, generally being a generalization, describe how closely you are linked to the

networks via friends and friends of friends and so on. If you’re just one or two short, strong

is a bit different from the majority of members of your tribe – the BaYaka equivalent of Kevin Bacon.

likely quite popular.

16. Matthew D. Lieberman, Social How Our Brains Are wired to connect (New York, NY: Broadway

Books, 2014), 9.

17. King James Version, Leviticus 19:16.

18. William Shakespeare, Richard II Act 3, scene 2. Quote from the MIT’s public domain Shakespeare

19. Russell B. Clayton, Glenn Leshner, and Anthony Almond, “The Extended iSelf The Effect of

iPhone Separation in Cognition, Emotion, and Physiology,” Journal of Computer-Mediated

Communication 20 No. 2 (March 2015): 119-35.

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20. Arianna Huffington “How to Keep Email from ruining Your Vacation,” Harvard Business

21. Richard W. Byrne, “How Monkeys Find Their Way by combining Leadership, Coordination and Cognitive

The Maps of African Baboons,” in Moving: Why and How Animals Travel in Groups edited by. Sue

Boinski as well as Paul A. Garber (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 2000) 501. I was introduced to

This quote is in the paper is cited in the note below.

22. Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin., “Shared Decision-Making Drives Collective Movement in the Wild

Baboons,” Science 348 No. 6241 (June 2015): 1358-61.

23. The use of scripts for accounting dates to ten thousand years. it’s

It is generally accepted as the general use of script is what is commonly associated with writing

Expression didn’t start to appear in the 3000 years BCE at the time of Mesopotamia. Here’s a useful

Source for this information Denise Schmandt-Besserat, “The Evolution of Writing,” January 25,

24. The experiment is described in this article: Alex (Sandy) Pentland, Honest Signals: How They Influence Our

World (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010), vii-viii. Some of the particulars of the sociometers of

This description is based on this profile in the magazine of Pentland Maria Konnikova “Meet the

Godfather of Wearables,” The Verge, May 6, 2014,

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25. Pentland, Honest Signals, x.

26. Pentland, Honest Signals, x.

27. Pentland, Honest Signals, 5.

28. Pentland, Honest Signals, VII-XII.

29. Pentland, Honest Signals, Pentland, Honest Signals.

30. Elizabeth Louise Newton, “Overconfidence in the Communication of Intent: Heard and Not Heard

Melodies” (original title “The The Rocky Road From Actions to Intentions”] (unpublished PhD

dissertation., Stanford University, 1990). Information on this dissertation that was not published includes Newton’s

The interpretation, as well as the number 3 percent are derived from a synopsis of this study that was published in Justin

Kruger and others., “Egocentrism over E-mail How Can We Communicate As effectively as we imagine?” Journal

in Personality and Social Psychology 89 of Personality and Social Psychology, no. 6 (December 2005): 925-36.

31. Kruger et al., “Egocentrism over E-mail.”

32. Sherry Turkle Reclaiming Talk: Reclaiming the power of Talk in a Digital Age (New York:

Penguin, 2016), 261-62.

33. Gloria J. Mark, Stephen Voida, and Armand V. Cardello, “‘A Pace Not Disciplined by Electrons”:

A Study in the Empirical Field of Work without email,” The Proceedings from the SIGCHI Conference on

Human Factors in Computing Systems May 2012 555-64.

34. David Allen, Getting Things Done The Art of stress-free Productivity revised. ed. (New York:

Penguin, 2015), 8.

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35. Allen Allen, Getting Things Done, 87-88.

36. Victor M. Gonzalez and Gloria Mark, “‘Constant, multi-tasking craziness” Management

Multiple Working Spheres” Proceedings of 2004 SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in

Computing Systems, April 2004, 135-20.

37. Gloria Mark, Victor M. Gonzalez Gloria Mark, Victor M. Gonzalez Justin Harris, “No Task Left Behind? The Examining of the

Nature of Fragmented Work,” Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in

Computing Systems, April 2005 321-30.

38. Brigid Schulte Overwhelmed: How to work, love and Play When There’s No Time (New

York: Picador, 2015), 5.

39. Sheila Dodge, Don Kieffer as well as Nelson P. Repenning, “Breaking Logjams in Knowledge Work:

How Organizations can Enhance Task Flow and Prevent overload,” MIT Sloan Management